Attributes management allows dynamic extension of domain object. This is especially necessary when modelling different kind of products that may have completely distinct set of features. Another use case is extension of existing functionality by storing preferences and feature toggles in custom attribute values.
This topic is discussed in details in attribute management documentation.
System section of payment gateway allows to enable/disable payment gateway modules platform-wide. Additionally it allows to pre-set some "common" parameters that would be copied when specific payment gateways are enabled at shop level.
This topic is discussed in details in payment methods documentation.
System preferences are system level custom attributes values. They define behaviour of the platform which would be common to all shops hosted and some specific preferences for how Admin application should behave.
This topic is discussed in details in system preferences documentation.
System configurations 3.5.0+
The platform is build with closed-open principle: closed for modification ensuring that core system is stable and well refined and open to extension or customisation of the behaviour.
Configuration panel is a registry of all the extension points that are available with indications of what customisations are enabled for which targets and instructions on how to configure specific extensions.
This topic is discussed in details in system configurations documentation.
Data groups and descriptors 3.5.0+
Data groups and descriptors allow to configure groups of data and corresponding mapping for the inbound data sources and outbound data extracts. They are the entry points to the import/export functionality.
By configuring data groups and descriptors user can import and export any data from the platform provided they have sufficient access to this data.
This topic is discussed in details in import/export documentation.
System monitoring and tools
Any production system would be extremely hard to manage without appropriate monitoring and tooling. Whereas operations section is largely related to business-as-usual tools, system tools are concerned with how well the platform performs and low level access to data in order to analyse and ascertain state of the system.
There are numerous tools at system administrator's disposal which are discussed in detail here.